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The top 10 countries paid over $435m in intermediary (agent) fees for transfers in 2021

Last Wednesday, FIFA's report on club spending on intermediary fees in 2021 was release. The top 10 countries spent over $430m on intermediary (agent) fees in 2021, with English clubs accounting more than $130m or 30% of the total.

At confederation level, UEFA member clubs were responsible for 95.8% of fees worldwide.Spending on intermediaries remained broadly stable in 2021, even as transfer fees decreased for second year running.

The large majority of the fees were paid by buying clubs, with exceptions in net-selling markets such as France, Brazil and the Netherlands.FIFA has announced its intentions for a review and reform of the transfer system, with a focus on reducing fees paid to intermediaries.